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Trajectories in higher education: ProUni in focus 1. Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Trajectories in higher education and the University for All Program ProUni are the central theme of this paper.
Curso de Direito | Vestibular FGV
The research question was: To what extent were some factors experienced during university difficulties in the academic trajectory of ProUni and bolsiwta graduates? The approach pprouni quantitative with an explanatory goal.
Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis. The research subjects were higher education graduates from a Southern Brazil nonprofit institution who entered manuap Results indicate that the highest percentage of graduates who worked during college were not scholarship holders.
Results indicate the need for studies involving the set of higher education graduates in order to better understand the difficulties faced by both groups of students in their academic trajectories. A abordagem foi quantitativa com objetivo explicativo. El enfoque fue cuantitativo con objetivo explicativo.
Access and retention inherently precede higher-level education. With regard to access, this is a problem that has dragged on over the years and has been the subject of debates, both in politics and in education. Meanwhile, as political and educational debates carry on, government programs have grown, providing access to higher education.
Among the government pruni aimed bolsist access to higher education, we highlight here the University for All Program — ProUni 3. Studies by Felicetti ; a indicate dropouts at this level of education by both students who are non-ProUni scholarship holders and scholarship holders, though to a lesser extent in the boosista group. In this sense, to recognize and understand what happens to students during their trajectory at university becomes a major factor for their retention.
Given the higher education, trajectory manua ProUni triad, this article presents the following research question: Mwnual what extent were factors experienced during the university program difficulties in the academic trajectory of ProUni and non-ProUni graduates?
The answers to this question correspond to the results of the second 4 part of the analyses carried out with the database, referring to the responses by the higher education graduates who enrolled in a nonprofit higher education institution in Rio Grande do Sul in Accordingly, Zago notes difficulties faced by students from a federal university, graduates of public basic education, with regard to a discrepancy in the basic courses.
The academic performance of ProUni scholarship holders has been pointed out in several studies as ;rouni good, even though they come from public basic education, thus showing an boldista and dedication to overcome the barriers imposed by a public education considered to be deficient ALMEIDA, ; ALVES, In many cases, a scholarship holder can lose the scholarship due to poor grades and may drop out of higher education.
Pinto claims, in the ProUni scholarship holder report, that scholarship holders believe that their non-scholarship holder colleagues also have financial difficulties. Another obstacle or difficulty found in the college trajectory was the combination of work with studies.
At the international level, one of the major references on the subject of retention in higher education is Vincent Tinto 5. His studies revolve around strategies to reduce dropouts and increase retention. Institutional strategies, such as facilitating student integration to the university environment, promoting opportunities for interactions between colleagues and teachers, and creating knowledge level assessment resources, contribute to staying at university.
Pedagogical and psychological support in the academic trajectory also contributes to pruoni at the HEI.
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Studies by Oloriz and Fernandes indicate the type of basic education school as an influencing factor in retention. Maintaining relationships with family and friends prior to attending university also constitutes support for student success and, by extension, university retention and completion CABRERA et al. Organizational changes, the higher education organization system, assessment and financing are also aspects related to retention in higher education DE VRIES, Accordingly, this work presents a study involving both graduates of higher education who were ProUni scholarship holders and those who were not.
The methodological approach of this study was quantitative in nature with an explanatory goal and intended to answer questions on aspects that pervaded the academic trajectories of the subjects invited to participate in this research.
The nature of the questions included in the research instrument justifies the use of a quantitative approach, since the purpose of these questions was to contribute and increase the understanding of the reality surrounding the academic trajectories of higher education graduates. These questions involved past facts, assuming, according to Silva and Menezesan ex post facto form of research. For Kerlingerex post facto studies try to explain or understand aspects involving the variables studied, allowing new studies to emerge.
We question here issues related to the academic career of the graduates who participated in this study. These graduates are from a non-profit higher education institution in Rio Grande do Sul Brazilentering in in the various university programs and graduated in Junewhen this research study began.
All ethical standards of confidentiality were observed and respect for the participants maintained. Of the 1, graduates, 6 Of the potential participants, From the initial contacts by phone, 75 Among the Thus, there was a total of answered questionnaires After exhausting all contact possibilities, all phone calls and re sending of e-mails had been complete, which took place from August to March For Marconi and Lakatosthe average number of responses sent via e-mail is around The survey questionnaire was generated in the Google Drive program, which provided a link for each generated instrument.
The link was associated to the code sent to the graduates with an invitation letter. This association was necessary to confirm whether the respondent had sent the completed instrument more than once, which did not happen in this investigation.
This code also allowed the researchers to control who had answered, in order not to repeat the e-mails sent and enabling phone contacts to those who had not answered.
The research instrument questions included aspects regarding who paid for college, whether graduates worked during the academic trajectory or not, whether work was a difficulty or not and whether or not there were financial difficulties, or a lack of material resources such as books, computer, internet at home, etc.
We also asked whether the distance between the school and home or work was a difficulty, whether they had difficulties interacting with colleagues inside and outside of the classroom, whether there were learning difficulties due to a lack of prerequisites coming from basic education, and finally, whether they faced discrimination. The responses were organized in an Excel worksheet.
Values given for responses involved a degree of agreement on a Likert scale and were assigned inversely, since they were negative responses, thus resulting in the following: These assignments were necessary in order to calculate the average and standard deviation.
Thus, 5 was considered a maximum average in each group analyzed.
The analysis performed compared graduates who were ProUni scholarship holders with those who were not. A factorial analysis was used to examine the contribution of each component questionin order to group the latent variables according to their degree of internal consistency.
The internal consistency of the degree of reliability was classified into 5 Cronbach Alpha scales, distributed as follows: Regarding age, most were under 25 upon entering university intotaling Table 1 contains data about who worked during college. As can be seen, most of the respondents, whether ProUni students or not, worked during this academic period.
Of the graduates who were not ProUni scholarship holders, As for the question regarding college payment, the answers are in Table 2. We can see that among the non-scholarship holders the highest percentage This makes it clear that students need to work during college to pay for it.
We can also see, according to the data presented in Table 2that 26 graduates had another way to pay for college, 13 golsista them through the FIES Student Bolsksta Program Financiamento Estudantil — FIESand the other 13 had another form of aid, which may be scholarships from the company where they worked.
The need to work during college was observed in a similar proportion between the two groups interviewed, although their studies had been fully paid by the scholarship in 212 case of the ProUni group. We also present in this Table the difference between averages for each type of difficulty, as well as the result of the t-test for significance of the differences of the averages between being ProUni or not.
We note here that the smaller the average is, the greater the difficulty presented, and that the average among the responses corresponds to 3. This proves that ProUni graduates would have had greater difficulty with material resources than their non-scholarship holder colleagues. Although there was no significant difference in the averages of other kinds of difficulties between graduates, we observed that the non-ProUni graduates experienced greater financial difficulty than their ProUni colleagues.
Moreover, in the working during college variable, the former group also had greater difficulties. That is, they had an average of 2. This can be explained by the fact that they have to pay for college, since Classroom interaction also showed to be a major difficulty among those who were not scholarship holders, although the average is close to 5, corresponding to not strongly agreeing that this item had been a difficulty.
Table 4 contains questions that showed clusters, that is, difficulties presented during the academic trajectory grouped into external and internal factors. The questions that addressed distance between the school and home or work, learning due to the lack of prerequisites in basic education, and working during college as being difficulties during the college trajectory did not form clusters, so they are not presented in Table 4.
Therefore, these two sets of questions need to be better formulated, including questions that are better organized in order to improve the internal consistency of the set of situations that may represent difficulties for students during their academic trajectory. This means that there is no significant difference between the responses of the two groups of graduates and the difficulties they faced.
We can conclude that both groups had the same difficulties. This may show that students entering university via ProUni face the same problems as their non-scholarship holder colleagues, which indicates that both groups need the same support and services to be able to remain in prouno and graduate.
The data related to working during college indicate that most participating prohni in this study worked during graduation. Moreover, if, on the one hand, the data pointed out that having a scholarship leads to graduation without needing to work, although with a percentage lower than This shows that working during college, in the Brazilian reality, is a characteristic that pervades higher education, whether the students are scholarship holders or not.
This could not be any other way, since, from the number of private HEIs in Brazil, which account for over This is better evidenced manuwl Table 5. Table 5 shows that inof the 4, These data show that enrollments in evening courses in Brazil correspond to Thus, according to the author, instead of studying in order to work, one works in order to study.
For Barreiro and Terribili Filhothe evening period is characterized by students who work during the day, in order to obtain financial resources to pay for college and stay there until graduation. Working during the academic trajectory proved to be a greater difficulty among non-scholarship holders, though with a small difference between averages.
This can be explained by the fact that, in addition to having to pay the costs of food, transportation and materials, they also had to pay the monthly college fee, while their scholarship holder colleagues did not.
This shows that entering university, with or without a scholarship, is just the first step and is not the only obstacle to be overcome, but it does represent the beginning of an arduous trajectory for anyone who enters it. In other words, being in college puts them in the same battle against difficulties of retention and completion at the university. These findings make two predictions: