Ley (art. 1°): HSBC Bank Argentina S.A., es una sociedad anónima constituida bajo las leyes de la República Argentina. Sus operaciones son. ARRIGONI, Carlos A. Estudio integral de la ley de Ética de la Abogacía Ley orgánica de los partidos políticos y Ley de financiamiento de los partidos. system, Central Argentina. Doctorat en co-direction avec la Universidad National de Córdoba, Argentina Professeur, UMR EPOC – Université de Bordeaux 1 Président. Mme. María Gabriela Ley Actualizado.
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This article presents a discourse analysis of four digital media press in Chile with regard to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. The research, unprecedented for the Chilean case, is aimed at acknowledging the news framings by means of which climate change is communicated, since the media are the main source of information on climate change for decision makers and citizens. The results show that the primary definers of the topic are the governmental actors of national level and the invisibilization of individuals and civil organizations in the process.
Thus, we see a high degree of consensus cotdoba the visible actors with regard to the framing of economic opportunity and the absence of framings of critical ecology. The conclusions point that this imbalance might influence a design cordoa public policies with a technocratic bias, losing the possibility of building an integral vision of the development of the country.
585 political will of democratic countries depends heavily on the list of priorities in the public agenda at codoba given moment; this is the reason why ldy power the media have in communication is fundamental, owing to their capacity to influence public opinion, a construct measureable by means of periodical opinion polls Kingdon, We understand climate change not as a natural phenomenon, but one eminently political, as it comprises not only man-made transformations upon the various systems which support life, but besides in decision-making processes; this way, it requires high coordination levels of action and multiple changes in the understanding and designing of public policies Giddens, A way to approach the agenda setting process is the notion of framing, as it allows configuring the limits of a debate by establishing a definite number of alternatives, which will have be observable for decision makers at the moment of understanding, planning and managing a public policy problem Pralle, This is relevant as there exists an imbalance between north and south hemispheres regarding the amount of: The noticeable economic growth in Latin America over the last decade has generated that a large number of our countries are considered middle income, which face critical disjunctives regarding climate change, as they have to address questions that are technically and politically difficult to answer: Or else, are we focusing on the adaption to or lsy mitigation of climate change?
There is evidence that indicates that middle-income countries are more vulnerable to climate change impacts leyy, food security, among others than poor ones, in the dilemma of adaption v. Moreover, the limited capacity of our States is recognized in: In this context, Chile stands out by being the first country that applied the policies of the neoliberal recipe book, generating heavily marked economic, political, geographical, environmental inequality, reason why it is relevant to analyze news framings of climate change, as they will allow us to approach the process of agenda setting, political and public, in view of understanding what the horizon of possibilities that people can visualize at the time of thinking and acting before climate change is.
A common feature in Latin America is the heavy concentration of media ownership, with important consequences for the plurality of information that sustain democratic States, as these have the function of observing and controlling the exercise of power in democracies Sunkel and Geoffroy, The Chilean case does not escape from such logic, but makes it deeper, because after the civil-military dictatorship the policy for the media was: The concentration of media ownership has three consequences on the freedom of expression: In this panorama, when the debate focuses on cordiba complex topics —with important risks for human security such as climate change—, the effects of such processes are potentially catastrophic.
The central role of the media in the setting of the political and public agendas on climate change has crdoba the analysis of the media discourse, especially in industrialized countries Schmidt et al.
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Ironically, there has been poor coverage on climate change in developing countries, in comparative terms, even if they experience its worst effects Painter and Ashe, From the interface between communication and politics, this article intends to understand how mitigation and adaption to climate change are communicated in Chile, by means of a discourse analysis on four digital press media over The question that guided this research is: In view of approaching the processes of public and environmental agenda setting by means of analyzing the news framings in the digital press.
This way, the framings orient the perspective with which news are told, which produces narratives, which amplified in the public space by the media, contribute to the definition and constructions of visions of the world and lifestyles the individuals lead, with no disregard for the capacity of agency and interpretation they may have.
By trimming reality, the news framings are instruments of power and social control, since the actors have a differential access in their design and communication processes. This standpoint would define the political agenda that will define the media agenda, which will amplify these dimensions already framed for the audience, also defining at once, the priority topics CervantesBaraba, From this perspective, it is relevant to consider, additionally, entrepreneurs and power interest groups, which also have capacity to set a media agenda.
Hence, the media will be at a structured subordination before the primary definers Hall et al.
Pitalito, Cesar, una vereda entre el despojo y el desalojo
The theory of agenda setting allows grasping coordoba link between public opinion, pressure groups, the media and decision makers by trying to answer the question why certain topics appear in the agendas, whereas others are neglected Kingdon, Problems enter —become salient— and leave public and political agendas regardless of their objective state Baumgartner and Jones, The qualitative content analysis allows computing and systematizing the information 3 in order to generate objective inferences of the emergence and use of certain analysis objects on such processing.
From such viewpoint, the most pertinent analysis device is Critical Discourse Analysis CDAwhich is utilized in this research.
We now see that in the texts a number of discursive references concur; these are negotiated leh governed by the differential of power each possesses, which on occasion makes them places for struggle and control, showing traces of conflicting ideologies, for power rests upon relations of difference and particularly on the effects of differences in social structures.
In this paper we analyze the news framings used to represent climate change, which become narratives that possess incipient or advanced degrees of institutionalization. When these narratives express conflicting positions, product of the clash between those who aspire to change the social structures and those with interests in maintaining them, become discourses, as control devices for the differential access to decide regarding the use of certain resources economic, political.
The analysis unit is the news item, which in the media is a formal report of events considered significant for the target audience, commonly publishes shortly after the information becomes available Chandler and Munday, cordoab A referential and objective informational communication is expected, with no biases, even if the information selection is determined by news values, i.
The sample we considered is the digital press. In Chile, the digital press has a credibility similar to that of the printed; it is perceived as the most independent to report and with similar quality. It is the fourth communication means utilized in the country, after open TV, radio and cable TV, slightly surpassing printed newspapers UDP-Feedback, The duopoly that exists in the media digital and printed expresses in the concentration levels of readership the conservative media have over the liberal Sunkel and Geoffroy, From the corpus of news items, the information will be codified in two central nodes: Include national news items, including those from Chileans abroad speaking of the country or else, foreigners in Chile speaking of the country.
Editorials, opinions and interviews were omitted, since their logic does not respond to the style structure of corfoba news items.
News items that in their heading, subheading, first and second paragraph mention any of the following concepts: By applying the cordoa criteria defined in the methodological framework, we obtained a corpus of 58 news items on climate change in Chile over the analyzed period, on which discourse analysis will be made.
If we take the set of the four analyzed media, we find that a national news item on climate change is published every The electronic medium El Mostrador does not present national news items on climate change, as it has international agencies as information sources. The actors with the most presence are politicians followed by scientist and experts, and international organisms.
Entrepreneurs are rather behind, while the absence of citizens is noticeable table 2. For the analysis, we have defined CM as: From corvoba standpoint of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCCsince it is caused by human action, fundamentally by the burning of fossil fuels that release greenhouse gases such as CO2, it is possible to perform various mitigating activities that contribute to decrease the volume of such gas in the atmosphere.
CCM has been subdivided for the analysis of four framings: Furthermore, CCA has been defined as: By and large, it is advised that developed countries invest on mitigation mainly, whilst developing ones must cordobaa so on adaption; basically owing to the intensive use of fossil fuels by corroba former and because the latter must invest less to bridge the gaps with developed countries and deliver better life conditions to their inhabitants, in what Giddens In this dynamic, developing countries resort to adaptive reactions, since they do not have the resources to face the prospective impacts, while international cooperation and technology transfer play a fundamental role in supporting cotdoba change to a planned adaption.
Mitigation, in order to be effective, must me carried out at a global scale; conversely, adaption is more effective at the scale of a system impacted at local and regional level. Mitigation has an established measurement; on the contrary, being aware of the benefits of adaption depends on social, lye and political contexts Broomell et al.
The benefits of mitigation will be noticed in ely to crodoba, owing to the prevalence of GG in the atmosphere; while those of adaption are more effective in the present, for le reduce vulnerability to climate variability.
And to the extent that climate change continues, the benefits of adaption will increase over time. The question that captures the problem points at: After studying the interrelations between adaption and mitigation, IPCC puts forward disjunctives and synergies between both measures, since one has consequences on the other, reason why they must be designed to make the most of complementariness, reducing their negative interferences IPCC,Ayers and Huq In this last discourse, the framings we found point at: It is worth underscoring that the conflicting coalitions after the three previously mentioned discourses underscore their positions and interests with financial, power, control, knowledge, influence and justice.
This research results demonstrate that the reviewed digital press exposes mitigation and adaption without deepening into the benefits and costs of applying one strategy of the other. This unclear definition of both terms may be associated to the fact that in general few news items on science include information on the scientific process Alley, This adds to the low reading comprehension of Chilean adults, 6 the very low schooling level 7 and the poor consumption of literature in general, 8 this situation is also distinguished by Sterman This produces a breach between the understanding of basic sciences and the Summaries for those responsible for the policies, 9 which at least require 17 years of study to be understood.
Mitigating actions are usually unfolded at macro-level national or transnational ; there are no news items that connect mitigation with individual actions or voice the concern of nongovernmental organizations involved.
Pitalito, Cesar, una vereda entre el despojo y el desalojo | Verdad Abierta
They point out that only the combination of both approaches will allow increasing the involvement level of people with climate change, contributing to surpass the barriers perceived at structural-social level and at subjective-individual level. The world of the large corporations seems to be associated to measures of carbon neutrality, while SMEs appear neither as sources nor are mentioned by the visible actors.
A separate mention is deserved by third-sector people and actors NGOs, foundations, among otherswhich are not considered in the news on mitigation in the studied media. In this disjunctive, wealthy countries should concern about solving future vulnerability, while the poor, about the current, a situation which in middle-income countries such as Chile becomes complex, as lfy should take care of both, for which they should look for confluence.
Chile started their way to adaption heavily stressing knowledge development to deal with the present vulnerability, however at present it would be moving toward the resolution of current vulnerability problems. Bassett and Fogelman In the analyzed sample, adaption mainly arises as planning, this is to say, as a search for solutions for the impacts of climate change. In the case of England, this narrative focuses on the planning processes with an emphasis on the cirdoba of the existing planning policies Juhola et al.
The case of Chile shows an expectable lower maturation level in oey planning discussion. Since at present the first steps are being taken to generate adaption policies, with an emphasis both on the production of scientific information and on national and international meetings for discussion.
Second in relevance, the framing of vulnerability, in which adaption is seen as a response to the perceived vulnerability of climate change impacts Juhola et al. In the case of Sweden, this framing is connected to extreme climate events such as floods. In Chile, vulnerability is observed as the projection of future impacts, this is to say, climate change is not considered to be occurring at present.
This positive vision of economic opportunity points at the framing of ecologic modernization, in recent decades sustained in England by the New Labor government Uusi-Rauva and Tienari, This narrative harbors the idea that economic growth and wealth accumulation by the rich will eventually permeate down to the lower layers of society, 11 an idea defended by the right-wing think tanks 12 in Chile, advocates of leu economic model taken by the military government in the eighties, and which has not been effectively challenged by the democratic governments in recent decades.
There are no citizen actors in these narratives. These meager figures of scientists reporting on climate change are consistent with what occurs in the U. The practice of excluding society people and organizations as sources of information, i. In a study on the role of the press in the construction of environmental representations in inhabitants of Saltillo, Mexico, Carabaza Ordinary scientists and citizens do not have the power themselves to influence the agenda setting, which the studied media deliver to politics, this way, there is need for a counterweight that cordoa the power to decide on actors other than politicians and entrepreneurs.
In the analyzed media, the risk that appears is that since visible actors possess a homogenous political lean right will ideologically taint the audience reception, a situation that musty be solved, such as Giddens points out the need to avoid turning climate change into political capital, as it will make political work difficult in the long run and will also divide the public opinion ly an ideological-political cleavage.
The fact that the definition ckrdoba a complex problem is eminently carried out by politics is not a problem in itself, because if there exists good understanding of the scientific process, the broad scientific consensus expressed in the IPCC report as well as cordpba necessary mitigating and adaption actions may be obtained.
Sterman and Booth-Sweeney From this standpoint it is not feasible to assume that political actors are capable of understanding and communicating a complex process such as climate change to the audiences, since in the United States, these people are demographically similar to the cordoa and governmental leaders, a situation that does not necessarily ccordoba with the educational profile of Chilean political actors. Separating people and local communities from the news framings generates: When the news items systematically make people and communities invisible as regards their role before climate change, what is latently being spelt is disaster.
This information asymmetry among the key actors can confuse the audiences, putting people at unnecessary risks Aldunce ly al. Chile, as a middle income country, lives tensions between its political-economic elites, which base their programs on economic growth with strong negative externalities for the environment, and citizen sectors that show disposition to look for alternative development options, albeit maybe expecting their leaders bring up such options in the debate. This work offers unpublished empirical evidence regarding the media framings to communicate climate change in Chile used by four digital press media with high readership levels and recognition by various actors of the country: The way climate change is represented in the media is key to inform people and communities about their responsibilities and rights regarding a suitable provision of Global climate Stability, 15 and in the case that such supply is scarce, which are the daily actions that have to lye performed corsoba contribute with them or regarding preparation for action in case the plans designed to minimize the associated risks fail.