Fatawa-e-Alamgiri Fatawa Alamgiri is the most comprehensive Encyclopaedia Initiated during Aurangzeb Alamgir’s reign (), it was compiled by The work was commissioned by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (r. The Fatawa is among the most comprehensive compendia of Hanafi law. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (who was also known as ‘Alamgir’). The Fatawa -e-Alamgiri is notable for several reasons: It was one of the earliest fiqhs It.
|Published (Last):||28 March 2012|
|PDF File Size:||11.49 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||2.73 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Fatawa-e-Alamgiri – Wikipedia
This compilation is based on Sunni Hanafi Islam ‘s Sharia law, and was the work of many scholars, principally from the Hanafi school. It consists of legal code on personal, family, slaves, war, property, inter-religious relations, transaction, taxation, economic and other law for a range of possible situations and their juristic rulings by the Hanafi jurists of the time.
The document stiffened the social stratification among Muslims.
In substance similar to other Hanafi texts,  the laws in Fatawa-i Alamgiri describe, among other things, the following. The Fatawa-e-Alamgiri also formalized the legal principle of Muhtasibor office of censor  that was already in use by previous rulers of the Mughal Empire.
Fatawa-i Alamgiri became the reference legal text to enforce Sharia in colonial south Asia in the 18th century through early 20th century. As the power shifted from Muslim rulers in India to colonial Britain, the colonial authorities decided to retain local institutions and laws, to operate under traditional pre-colonial laws instead of introducing secular European common law system.
Further, the English-speaking judges relied on Muslim law specialist elites to establish the law of the land, because the original Fatawa-i Alamgiri Al-Hindiya was written in Arabic. This created a social class of Islamic gentry that jealously guarded their expertise, legal authority and autonomy. It also led to inconsistent interpretation-driven, variegated judgments in similar legal cases, an issue that troubled British colonial officials.
The colonial assumption was that the presumed local traditional sharia-based law, as interpreted from Fatawa-i Alamgiri, could be implemented through British-style law institution with integrity.
Shia Muslims were in conflict with Sunni Muslims of South Asia, as were other minority sects of Islam, and they questioned the applicability of Fatawa-i Alamgiri. Thirdly, the British belief in “legal precedent” was at conflict with disregard for “legal precedent” in Anglo-Muhammadan legal system that emerged, leading colonial officials to distrust the Maulavis Muslim religious scholars.
The British colonial officials responded by creating a bureaucracy that created separate laws for Muslim sects, and non-Muslims such as Hindus in South Asia. The British tried to sponsor translations of Fatawa-i Alamgiri. In the late 18th century, at the insistence of the British, the al-Hidaya was translated from Arabic to Persian.
Charles Hamilton  and William Jones translated parts of the document along with other sharia-related documents in English. These translations triggered a decline in the power and role of the Qadis in colonial India.
Alamgirr Stein states that the Fatawa-i-Alamgiri represented a re-establishment of Muslim ulama prominence in the political and administrative structure that had been previously lost by Muslim elites and people during Mughal Emperor Akbar ‘s time. It reformulated legal principles to defend Islam and Muslim society by creating a new, expanded code of Islamic law.
Scholars    state that the British colonial efforts to translate and implement Sharia from documents such as the Fatawa-e Alamgiri had a lasting legal legacy during and in post-colonial South Asia Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
Fatawa Alamgeeri in URDU | ISLAMIC BOOKS HUB
Mona Siddiqui notes that while the text is called a fatawait is actually not a fatwa nor a collection of fatwas from Aurangzeb’s time. The text considers contract not as a written document between two parties, but an oral agreement, in some cases such as marriage, one in the r of witnesses.
Aurangzeb — Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad, commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal Emperor. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign, Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. Rebellions and wars led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and he was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, and following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire came to an end.
Nevertheless, the territory of the Mughal Empire still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah. In Juneafter a rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, Aurangzebs valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs.
This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses and Aurangzeb said, If the fight had ended fatally for me, death drops the aoamgir even on Emperors, it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did, by arrangement, Aurangzeb stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, and took the advice of his alamhir as the Mughal Army gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha in The campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power, Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in InAurangzeb married the Safavid princess, Dilras Banu Begum and she was his first wife and chief consort.
He also had an infatuation with a girl, Hira Bai. In his old age, he was under the charms of his concubine, the latter had formerly been a companion to Dara Shikoh. In the same year, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana, inAurangzebs sister, Jahanara, was burned faawa the chemicals in her perfume were ignited by a nearby lamp while in Agra.
This event precipitated a crisis with political alqmgir. Aurangzeb suffered his fathers displeasure by not returning to Agra immediately, Shah Jahan had been nursing Jahanara back to health in that time and thousands of vassals had arrived in Agra to pay their respects.
The Mughal empire extended over parts of the Indian subcontinent. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Alamgie and Timur.
During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire, the classic period of the Mughal Empire started in with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as harmony.
Akbar was a warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms.
fatawq Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, the reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between and was the golden age of Mughal architecture. By the midth century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies, during the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad.
He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of and following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned and exiled to Rangoon. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, another name was Hindustan, which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire.
In the west, the term Mughal was used for the emperor, and by extension, the use catawa Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty. The term gained currency during the 19th century, but remains disputed by Indologists, similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including Mogul and Moghul.
Nevertheless, Baburs ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture, ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions.
He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, Baburs forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India, the instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels. Humayuns exile in Persia fagawa diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayuns triumphant return from Persia inbut he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.
Humayuns son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River. Islam — Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God.
It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1. Islam teaches that God fatzwa merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad.
The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original, complete and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents, relatives, and neighbors have also been defined.
Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, Islam began in the early 7th century. Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Converts and immigrant communities alajgir found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral fagawa s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness and peace.
Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran.
In some verses, fatawaa is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion. Sharia — Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
It is derived from the precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran. In Arabic, the term refers to Gods divine law and is contrasted with fiqh. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists, traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia, the Quran, sunnah, qiyas, and ijma. Alamfir, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists, ottoman rulers achieved additional control over the legal system by promulgating their own legal code and turning muftis into state employees.
Non-Muslim communities had legal autonomy, except in cases of interconfessional disputes, in the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models. Judicial procedures and legal education in the Muslim world were brought in line with European practice.
While the xlamgir of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence. The Islamic revival fataqa the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including reinstatement of fxtawa corporal punishments, in some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of sharia advocated by progressive reformers.
The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world, attempts to impose it on non-Muslims have caused intercommunal violence in Nigeria and may alamfir contributed to the breakup of Sudan.
Some Muslim-minority countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize the use fatqwa sharia-based family laws for their Muslim alamgirr, there are ongoing debates as to whether sharia alakgir compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and womens rights. For many Muslims, the word means simply justice, alamgie they will consider any law that promotes justice, Muslims of different perspectives agree in their respect for the abstract notion of sharia, but they differ in how they understand the practical implications of the term.
Classical sharia, the body of rules and principles elaborated by Islamic jurists during the first centuries of Islam, historical sharia, the body of rules and interpretations developed throughout Islamic history, ranging from personal beliefs to state legislation and varying across an ideological spectrum.
Classical sharia has often served as a point of reference for these variants, Contemporary sharia, the full spectrum of rules and interpretations that are developed and practiced at present. Iraq — The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, tatawa known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, fattawa, create laws, the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC.
A monarchy was established in and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain ininthe monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Baath Party from untilafter an invasion by the United States and its allies inSaddam Husseins Baath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in There are several suggested origins for the name, one dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for city, UR.
An Arabic folk etymology for the name is rooted, well-watered. The term historically included the south of the Hamrin Mountains. The term Sawad was also used in early Islamic times for the region of the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Since approximately 10, BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture where agriculture, the following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gypsum, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations.
The fatawq is so called as it separates the land of the Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah in the west and it is also known as the Western Province. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by the Najd and its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities aftawa Mecca and Medina. As the site of Islams holiest places, the Hejaz has significance in the Arab, historically, the Hejaz has always seen itself as separate from the rest of Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Hejazis are of diverse origins. The Hejaz fatqwa the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula, people of Hejaz have the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia.