Molecular survey of Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Mexico: prevalence of infection and possible associated factors. Estudio molecular de Ehrlichia canis en perros. Estudo retrospectivo ( a ) da erliquiose canina em Belo Horizonte The number of cases of canine ehrlichiosis increased considerably from the year . Canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are important tick-borne diseases with a worldwide distribution. Information has been continuously.
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Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.
In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended.
Ehrlichia canis; Rhipicephalus sanguineus; Prevalence; Immunoenzyme techniques source: Canine ehrlichiosis is a disease of domestic and wild canines and occurs worldwide. The infection in the animal disseminates through the blood or the lymph system within infected mononuclear cells, thus reaching other organ systems 3.
The majority of cases occurs in endemic areas in spring and summer months, when ticks are most active. Because the transmission of ehrlichiosis is mechanical and nonbiological, transfusions with infected blood can result in high rates of infection 2.
The brown dog tick, R. Some studies of E.
In recent years, a new species of monocytic Ehrlichia was isolated and characterized in Venezuela; this organism may be a subspecies of E. Ehrlichiosis has been reported as an emerging zoonotic disease, and multiple cases have been described worldwide.
In Peru, ehrlichiosis has been detected in dogs canine monocytic ehrlichiosis since 7and the number of reported cases has increased since then. Ina dog rhrlichiosis canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis CGE was identified in the ehrlichiosjs of La Molina. This disease is highly likely to develop in our environment; therefore, serological detection of antibodies to E.
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of and factors associated with canine ehrlichiosis in the province of Huanuco, Peru. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study.
The city of Huanuco is located in north-central Peru. According to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, inthis city had an estimated population ofIt is located m above the sea level, in the dhrlichiosis formed by the Caniina River.
In the rural area, people have a habit of keeping multiple dogs per household, and the majority of these owners do not treat their dogs for ticks. In addition, there are many stray dogs, making it easier for the R.
Therefore, the ehrlichiosos of appropriate vectors for known ticks as well as host reservoirs largely determine where E. The selection of the sample was not probabilistic via casual or accidental sampling ; the dogs were included consecutively as ehrlichuosis were brought to the clinics. The statistical sample consisted of dogs. Ten veterinary clinics in the province of Huanuco participated on a voluntary basis.
The study included 15 dogs from each clinic. Only tick-infested dogs were included, and the owner was queried ehrlichioxis establish the factors associated with this infection. Degree of tick infestation: The criterion used for the count was cranial-to-caudal occurrence; no validated methodology for the calculation of tick infestation was found in the literature. The results ehrlichioais categorized in ordinal form from 0 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 60, 61 to 70, and from herlichiosis Health condition of the dog: The condition was deemed good when the dog had a normal physical appearance, the diet was adequate, it had no clinical signs of disease, and the owner stated that the dog was in good physical form.
The condition was deemed excellent when the dog was in good condition, and the owner followed its vaccination and antiparasitic treatment schedule properly, in addition to a proper physical appearance of the dog. The condition was deemed poor when the dog was not healthy, according to the presence of one or more clinical signs such as diarrhea, ehrlicniosis, cachexia, ecchymosis, jaundice, ataxia, dyspnea, or weight loss.
Central tendency and dispersion measures for quantitative variables as well as percentages for categorical variables were used for data analysis. The bivariate analysis was carried out using the Pearson chi squared test, which assesses the existence of a relation between ehrlichiosis and relevant factors. A multivariate analysis with nonconditional logistic regression was performed with the variables that were significant in the bivariate analysis.
The effect of collinearity between the evaluated variables was taken into account. We used statistical software Stata v. A rapid test for detection of anti- E. The duration of reading the results was 20 minutes. The frequency of E. There was a statistically significant difference between the presence of E. No statistically significant correlation was detected between the prevalence of E.
In the multivariate fanina, independent associations were found between the prevalence of E. The high prevalence of E. These similar climatic conditions, in caninna to the rural sanitation conditions of the dwellings, can account for greater tick proliferation. Upon evaluating the relation between the health condition of the dogs and the presence of E. The ehrllichiosis health condition of a dog is a risk factor of E.
Infection is likely to depend on transmission via tick bites. Homelessness of a dog is also a risk factor of E. This association was not proven by the multivariate analysis. This is because with a greater number of ticks, the risk of transmission is greater. It is difficult to control ticks due to the complexity of their life cycle and the favorable climate in the province of Huanuco; thus, reinfestation ehrlicchiosis ticks and transmission of ehrlichiosis are possible.
Upon evaluating the relation between the age of the dog, categorized by groups, and the diagnosis of E. To be precise, adult age of a dog is linked to E. Middle-aged dogs have a greater chance of being exposed to the vector ehrlichilsis pups do.
This situation is due to the habit of the owners to let the animals out on the street when they complete their vaccinations, believing that such dogs are at a lower risk of infectious diseases.
Ehrlichiosis (canine) – Wikipedia
In this study, the breeds including the cross-breeds showed no significant relation to the presence of E. This result contradicts studies where breed analysis indicated that the German Shepherd is at a greater risk. The type of homemade food that the dog receives is related to E. This finding can be explained: Nevertheless, infection is still likely to depend on transmission via a tick bite. As for the risk to humans, E. According to a study by De Souza et al.
In this test, there is cross-reactivity between E. There is only one canlna of E. Those authors hypothesized that some, if not all of the human cases attributed to E. The main limitation of our study is the risk of low representativeness due to the small sample size, cahina addition to nonprobabilistic sampling.
In conclusion, the prevalence of E. The variables that are related independently to E. EHM participated in the conception and design of the study, laboratory work, and collection of data. EHM and BDM performed analysis and interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript, critical review, and approval of its final version.
BDM also provided technical, statistical, and administrative advice.
Guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in Europe
Ehrlichiosis [citado el 18 de noviembre del ]. Waner T, Harrus S. Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases. International Veterinary Information Service; [citado el 25 de enero de ]. Tesouro M, Sainz A. Ocular signs of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: Human Infection with Ehrlichia canis accompanied by clinical signs in Venezuela. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Ehrlichiosis Canina en el Peru. Seroprevalencia de la Dirofilariosis y Ehrlichiosis canina en tres distritos de Lima.
Rev Investig Vet Peru. Prevalencia de Ehrlichia canis en caninos de la provincia de Sullana [Tesis Bachiller]. BioNote; [citado el 25 de enero de ]. Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Seroepidemiology of canine babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in a hospital population.
Vet Parasitol ; 3- 4: Rev Inv Vet Peru. Ehrlichia canis-like agent isolated from a man in Venezuela: Surveillance for zoonotic vectorborne infections using sick dogs from Southeastern Brazil.