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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Torrey and James M. Adjustable speed drives for automotive power steering employ brushless dc or switched-reluc- tance motors. The optimal choice for this dataaheet tion requires an assessment of the relative merits of the datasheeet and associated power electronics. The traditional brushed dc motor is get the automotive industry namely, low voltage, high cur- not suitable for many of these adjustable rent semiconductors has datashheet automakers and OEMs speed applications because of the wear associated with the to consider higher performance motor technologies with the expectation that high volume and improved fuel economy will bring value to their products.
Few applica- tions have seen broad acceptance at the 12V level, prima- rily because the load currents which are often transient can be quite high.
Power Steering: Brushless DC | David Torrey –
While you can often size electric motors for their nominal usage, and overloaded in transient situ- ations, the same is generally not true for the power elec- tronics. The requirement that the electronics be sized for peak power requirements results in expensive systems, much to the dismay of the automakers.
Adtasheet is a proposed move toward a 42V platform in an effort to find some balance between the projected electri- cal demands of a typical automobile and fatasheet safety.
While this voltage does provide some relief from the 12V headaches, such as large conductors and inherent voltage drops across semiconductors, it is not a complete solution for the motor and power electronics designer.
Al- though the challenges are likely not insurmountable, the first two production hybrid electric vehicles to be sold in zyxwvutsrqpon this country, the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight, are not examples of low-voltage technology. Several problems are associated with selecting an ap- propriate technology for a given application. By way of ex- Fii. Switched-reluctance motor with sixstatorpoles and fourrotorpoles.
This arcing can become Motor Technology more serious as application requirements move from sub- The brushless dc BLDC and switched-reluctance motors fractional horsepower to transient integral horsepower. The SRM have some barriers to market penetration.
Part : DP8531V,DP8569V,DP8570AV/NOPB
The BLDC motor also lighter and more suitable candidates raises concerns about failure modes. While the induction mo- Switched Reluctance tor is an excellent performer in many Power electronics technology has industrial applications, the perfor- made the SRM an attractive choice for mance margins that the automotive many applications, though to date it Fig2. BLLKmotor with threephases and 16poles. The rotor field that attracts the nearest rotor pole zy zyxw nology curve rather quickly.
Excitation is applied cause of the difficulties associated To excite the motor, a power electron- sequentially to the phase windings to with extracting heat from the rotor, ics inverter energizes appropriate produce continuous rotation. The result – a simpler design with fewer components, higher power density, and excellent performance.
Let us show you how smaller can be better for your unique requirements. Because no permanent magnets or windings are on the rotor, all the torque developed in the SRM is reluctance torque. While the SRM is simple in prin- ciple, it is rather difficult to design and develop perfor- II mance predictions.
This is due to the nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the motor under normally saturated operation. Modeling processes support design of the z conventional SRM[5, Perhaps to a greater extent than in other types of motors, the structural design of the SRM requires careful attention. Inattention to structural details is often to blame for an acoustically noisy SRM. The conventional SRM is relatively straightforward manufacturing, due to the concentrated windings around k zyxwvu the stator poles in contrast with distributed windings in the induction motor.
There are no windings or permanent magnets on the rotor. The simplicity of construction and lack of costly permanent magnets imply that the SRM – would be much less expensive to produce in the quantities that dc or induction motors currently enjoy.
Traditionally, the stator resembles that of an in- duction motor; however, the windings can be configured so they’re not distributed. The rotor on the BLDC motor can take many forms, but all have permanent magnets in some form. Depending on motor size, these magnets can zyxw 2 Spruce St. The magnet configuration is tied closely to the performance and manu- facturing logistics of the permanent magnet material. In motors of less than 1. Don’t get an advantage around this power level. However, as the speed stuck with a pile of failures.
Field weakening in the BLDC motor is sometimes attempted through phase advance of the cur- o Miniature package size designed for PCB mounting rent waveform, yet this tends to introduce substantial Open collector, digital output torque ripple.
Field weakening is more natural in perma- ideal for interfacing to nent magnet motors that have been wound for a sinusoi- control circuitry dal back EMF. The dc bus is 9V to 19V, 12V nominal. The motor drive system should not draw more than 80A from Tel: Require performance points for the power steering application. Design performance for SRM motor. The motor may be driven by a trapezoi- dal or sinusoidal drive. Table 1 outlines the required performance points for Fi Phase currentand phase inductancefor operationbelow basespeed.
The 5 Nm points represent the predicted maximum torque for the application. The 7 Nm is a safety margin to account for losses in the mechanical interface between the electric motor and the tires. The re- quired no load speed for the motor is 4, rpm. Because the duty is transient in nature, the time requirements are provided to help minimize the size of the motor by not designing to tolerate steady state performance under Fig. Typicalenergy conversion cycle for the power steering SRM these conditions.
The SRM operates in a constant torque region below base speed, and a constant power region above base speed. Thus, it’s necessary to determine the zyxwvu shaft speed associated with 1kW at 7 Nm. If the SRM is capable of producing 7 Nm at this speed, then it will satisfy all other points in Table 1. To accomplish this from The available battery power is 1,W and the peak shaft power is IkW. The required system effi- ciency to accomplish this power and satisfy the battery cur- rent requirement is This requires the motor and Fig.
Aggregate torqueproduction for all phases above the torque contribution of a single phase. Selecting a base speed significantly above the 1, rpm could result in excessive phase currents, adding cost to system. The 5 Nm is the expected maximum torque.
In the event that there are specified points for a 4-phase switched-reluctance motor static friction issues that require 7 Nm to break free, bat- designed for this application. Base speed is between 1, tery currents in excess of 80A should be expected tran- rpm and 1, rpm.
While certain points in the design ex- siently unless the duration is so short that inverter bus ca- ceed the battery current requirement, those points are well pacitors can supply the additional energy. The SRM is reasonably good at behaving as a constant power motor above base speed. The BLDC motor, on the other hand, often loses power output capability rapidly as the speed increases. As a result, the design must carefully evaluate points beyond base speed to make sure they fall within the actual torque speed envelope of the motor.
The torque-speed characteristicfor the brushless dc motor. Notice that the base speed point dpa4426r torque demon- strates a rapid drop from 7 Nm is extended out to more than 2, rpm. This is necessary to ensure the motor meets zyxwvuts the no-load speed requirement and 3 Nm can be achieved at 3, rpm. Per- conversion cycle, and the achievable torque, respectively.
Table 3 ripple is a dpa46r of phase overlap. A certain amount of cur- summarizes the points. An important difference between the SRM and with a full slot skew that produces back EMF waveforms that are nearly sinusoidal. Continued on page 33 Custom designs utilizing multi-chip and hybrid technologies serving a wide range of applications: BLDCmotor performance at selected operating points.
Sinusoidalphase currents for the design BLDC motor at rpm. Resulting torque for a sinusoidally excited BLDC motor. I Power Electronics Technology Augusl m www. However, dif- IHigh Voltage Diodes ferences in motor control and the cost of the electronics must be considered in cost-sensitive applications.
Boxtion with five controllable switches the number of phases Lucernemines. Inverter costs favor the SRM. Manufacturing costs favor the SRM. Use of a lower quality magnet will exacerbate the current requirements.
Each application de- datasheett careful matching of the electromechanical require- ments to the inherent characteristics of the electric motor. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Click here to sign up. Help Center Find new research papers in: