I got up and for some reason felt an urge to read from the Diwan of Hallaj. I opened up the book and came upon a selection that moved my heart in a very deep. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. (Diwan al-Hallaj: 34). For most Muslims especially legalistic, tawhid or the unity of God meant that God was inaccessible to man. Al-Hallaj believed that it was.
|Published (Last):||17 June 2017|
|PDF File Size:||19.33 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.18 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Why was Mansur al-Hallaj one of the most controversial Sufi al-hlalaj. I am the One whom I diwaj, and the One whom I love is myself. We are two souls incarnated in one body; if you see me, you see Him, if you see Him, al-jallaj see us. Diwan al-Hallaj, 93 Thou who blames me for my desire of him, how great is your blame! If you only knew Him of whom I would speak, you would not blame me.
Other men go away for their pilgrimage, but my pilgrimage is toward the place where I am. Other men offer sacrifices, but my sacrifice is my own heart and blood. They physically circumambulate the temple, but were they to proceed reverently around God Himself, they would not need to go around a sacred building. Diwan al-Hallaj, 85 The two poems reported above have been chosen because they represent the ideals of Mansur al-Hallaj in a very effective way.
These verses surely summarise al-hallzj of the key-concepts that will be unfolded in this essay.
Diwan Al Hallaj by Mansur al-Hallaj
Moreover, it has been noticed that they both can be used to highlight some of the mysterious aspects of the life of this peculiar character. For instance, the first poem can either perfectly represent the Sufi style of poetry, or it may be interpreted, as well, as the effort of a Manichean mingled into a wider ecstatic literature. Throughout his whole life, Mansur will be able to develop his own religious ideas, always trying to reach the Truth in the most al-hallah way for him, which often was the most difficult.
We will briefly sketch the early phases of his life and the entrance in the Sufi Community. Then it will be diwam the main reasons behind the rupture of Mansur and al-Junayd, one of the most influential Sufi of the time.
The last part of the essay is dedicated to the last years and the practical results of his preaching. Mansur was born around A.
He moved with the whole family, between andto the Arab colony of Wasit. In Wasit, almost certainly, Mansur received the first religious formation. The young Husayn received a strict Sunni formation by Hanbalite traditionalists. The years with Sahl proved to be crucial, though, for the early phases of the Hallajian crisis, which would have been the leitmotiv of his whole life. In fact Sahl was a particular Sufi who did not adhere to the Sufi community and, therefore, Mansur had not been obliged to wear the suf, the woollen stole of the Sufi.
Mystical dimensions of Islam. The University of North Carolina Al-halkaj. Furthermore, even the theory of the disrespectful behaviour of Mansur cannot be justified on the base of his future conduct. It could be more possible that young Hallaj, not being formally tied to Sahl, had decided to move toward one of the intellectual capitals of Islam to continue his approach to the Path.
As we said, in c. Makki became his pir around this time, giving to Hallaj the khirqa, the robe of wool, and performing the ritual of trimming the moustaches. He was an ally of the Zanj rebels, who were threatening the passage of the Mecca hajj around Basra.
When Mansur married, he was in the middle of a dispute between his father-in-law and his 3 Schimmel, Mystical dimensions of Islam, p. The heritage of Sufism. Princeton University Press p. Professor Schimmel, moreover, affirms that the clash between the two mystics had been caused by the jealousy of Makki for Hallaj married the daughter of the rival. In he moved to Baghdad, and there he decided to meet al-Junayd.
The disagreement exposed by Mansur had already been discussed in Hellenistic circles, and it is a matter of a free thinker, not the al-hallan of a simple murid. In any case, Junayd saw riwan these words only imprudent curiosity and prophesised to Hallaj that he would have stained the gibbet. This first quarrel between Mansur and Junayd arrived to us through uncertain, often biased, accounts, but it could perhaps fix into the tradition of the forthcoming disputes between Junayd and his disciple.
Ideas of an ecstatic. Islamic Studies 39 2 Summer It may be possible to represent Junayd and Hallaj as two faces of the same coin.
2 Poems by Mansur Al Hallaj – Baraka Institute
For it is possible to detect several points of rupture which surely do not concern only doctrinal issues, but also pedagogy, respect for the authorities and personal divergences. To better understand the differences between Mansur and Junayd we must, first of all, detect the doctrinal divergence among the Sufis of these schools.
The perishing creation has consequently no true reality but God, and, moreover, the created world is continuously passing through Him. The Mystic looks at this process, and does not seek the physical death, but the unification with the only True Reality al-HaqqGod. It is the starting point of Islamic monotheism and it states the absoluteness omnipresence, omniscience and omnipotence of deity.
Al-hallak of different social classes had to be addressed with the appropriate lexicon, for notions and concepts of worship ought to be regulated according to the audience. The esoteric perception could not al-hallak well understood by the mass who al-halllaj grasp the exoteric aspects of the divine. He held that it was extremely difficult, if not impossible, to rationalise the mystic experience and, if we look at the growing suspicion of orthodox circles around Sufism, the Sufi world was perhaps becoming dangerous.
In the recollection of the self permeated with God, the faithful is send back to the created realm in order to be a rightful example for the community. The wayfarer of the Path is taken out of his human attributes, and he is totally obliterated in the presence of the Truth. So, if for the Sober it was crucial to persist in the presence of the divine attributes, for the intoxicated the annihilation must be complete.
It is not easy to detect the exact moment when Hallaj uttered these words but surely this sentence is present in the Tawasin, the book written by Husayn during his last imprisonment. Many commentators had tried all over the centuries to give an exhaustive explanation to these words. Otherwise, brother, I have nothing to do with affirming God’s Unity.
It is possible to find in this work many of the major ideas of Mansur, developed in an elegant and suggestive style.
The eight chapters contain thoughts and discussions about unity, prophetology and the interior dilemmas of the author. Satan is represented as being the perfect monotheist muwahhidwho did not prostate himself before Adam, so disobeying to a divine order. He teaches that love must be superior to monotheism, or blind devotion. Actually the general opinion was that love meant merely obedience.
The mystic has to purify his heart from all the self-interests or desires through the zuhd, perhaps an equivalent of the via purgativa.
Love will inspire the purified heart al-haplaj the mystic, thus, as Massignon said, enabling him to act rightfully and perceive God in the proper way. Again he rejects some of the basic points of both Sukr and Sawn, such as the consciousness of the self in God. However, it is important to highlight another crucial feature of his dwan In the same period he was arrested for the first time.
These were years of great travelling and preaching and it has been said that during his journeys he was named Hallaj, the carder of the hearts, for his ability to understand the inner movement of the hearts.
Sufis have been for long dwelling upon the idea of pain and love. In doing so, though, Hallaj attracted both admirers and detractors. First of all, we have to highlight the difficult period of the Abbasid caliphate.
The reign of the young al- Muqtadir cannot be considered a caliphate, but rather a vizierate.
In these years many viziers seized temporally the power by influencing directly the weak caliph. On the other hand, Husayn managed to gather a conspicuous amount of opponents. His ideals were surely one of the major causes for the rupture with the religious establishment.
It may be possible that he had been accused of zandaqa, a Persian word resembling the heretic notion of hulul al-Ruh, incarnation of the spirit, often related to Manichaeism. Schimmel and Mason, more or less, concord that Husayn was not a charlatan and, therefore, they recognise his achievements in poetry, the former, and mystical experience, the latter. On the other hand, since Hallaj had begun to preach his theories the opponents never missed an occasion to criticise the mystic from Tur.
Ansari surely holds another opinion. One of the accusations against Husayn was that he had appointed himself a sheikh even though he had not received the permission from Makki. Ideas of an ecstatic, pp. This is what, eventually, happened to Mansur. His last words were these: The former for its civic responsibility and the latter for the poetical style.
From this perspective, it does not appear as evident as before that Hallaj was merely an exuberant intoxicated.
In his theology, the mystic detached partially from both the Schools, and thus began to spread his al-hallaj preaching all over the Eastern courtiers. Even though he had several clashes with both Schools, arguably, his most evident fault was to have preached publicly the secrets of the wayfarer. In fact, he was able to alienate both the Sufi Community and the secular establishment. From a political point of view, it may be not unusual to look at Husayn as a scapegoat, used by the viziers to maintain forcedly the control over an always more unhappy population.
In practice, he and many other thinkers and important figures of the time, had been sacrificed for the sake of social stability. Mansur diwaan had become a living controversy since he left his first master Diiwan.
The individualistic approach, the passionate love, the Jesus- like martyrdom was all caught into a peculiar historical moment. The caliphate wanted reforms and Hallaj appeared at the right moment, in the right place, to offer the population a third way, the Hallajian doctrine. Edited by Alberto Ventura Marietti: Islamic Studies 39 2 Summer: The encyclopaedia of Islam.
Newit by C E Bosworth [et al ed. Appendix A From www. Jafar al-Sadiq on Moses and God: Sura al-Taha Allah—there is no God but He.