The effectiveness of money as a motivation for academic institutions. Publizieren Sie Ihre Abschlussarbeit: Bachelorarbeit, Masterarbeit, oder Dissertation. Diplomarbeit aus dem Jahr im Fachbereich BWL – own und employer, notice: 2,0, Berufsakademie Sachsen in Dresden, forty Quellen im. Anreizsysteme als Instrument der Mitarbeitermotivation am Beispiel der Tchibo Vertriebs-Incentive-Veranstaltung “TeLaBe ” in Berlin: Diplomarbeit.

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BWL – Personal und Organisation. This diiplomarbeit paper is copyright protected under the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works ofas latest amended in Paris Act ofwhich Tanzania become party to the convention in and other international enactments, in that behalf, an intellectual property.

It may not be reproduced or stored by any means, electrical or mechanical, and in full or in part, except for short extracts in fair dealing, for research or private study, critical scholarly review or discourse with acknowledgements, without written permission of the Dean, Faculty of Business Administration, on behalf of both the Author and Mitagbeitermotivation University — Dar es Salaam College. I dedicate this research paper to my family for loving me unconditionally and for their dedicated efforts in support of my entire academic life.

My first and foremost acknowledgement goes to God Almighty, who without failing has always supplied me with health, hope and passion in my academic endeavors, in this am forever grateful. I would also like to express gratitude to my research supervisor Mr. Felix Emmanuel for patiently assisting me in my research report. My final acknowledgement goes to the management and academic djplomarbeit of Tumaini University Dar es Salaam College for allowing me to conduct a case study and mitabreitermotivation their responses to my research inquiries.

This research paper investigated the effectiveness of money as motivator for academic staff in higher learning institutions. The subjects of the study were 26 workers of Tumaini University Dar es Salaam College, the subjects were divided into diplomarbiet groups; senior management and academic staff, 25 questionnaires were issued to academic staff and an interview was conducted with principal human resource officer.

Quantitative and qualitative techniques of data analysis were employed. The findings of the study revealed that the effectiveness of money as motivator for academic staff was limited or affected by some motivating factors and not affected or unlimited by others.

In the concern of the implications, the limitations and suggestions for future research studies, they are discussed in the final chapter. This chapter consists of the introduction of the study, background of the problem, statement of the problem, general and specific research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study and theoretical framework.

Human Resources are the most important resources in any work organization. People are common and essential elements diplomaarbeit every organization; they perform tasks, organize works and make vital decisions that run the organizations. Without people organizations cannot exist, and without mitarbeitermtoivation ones, their performances will predictably fail.

Concerning the ability of employees, the case is less complex and can to diplomxrbeit good percent be covered well in recruitment, training and development, as well as employee empowerment.

The word motivation is generally used to reflect the effort or drive that an individual puts into an activity Torrington, Mitarbeitfrmotivation importance of motivation is unquestionable, Kovach In spite of more recent attention to commitment, motivation is still considered to be an important influence on performance Torrington, Diplomarbejt to Decenzothe motivation function is one of the most important yet probably the least understood aspects of HRM Process.

Human motarbeitermotivation is complex, and trying to figure out what motivates various mitarbeitermoyivation has long been a concern of behavioral scientists. All organizations are ultimately concerned with mitarbeiternotivation should be done to motivate employees so as to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people — motivated people Armstrong, Since the identification of Motivation as an important ingredient for performance, looking closely to what motivates employees has been mitarbeittermotivation long quest for the organizational management.

Initially, the instrumentality theory of Frederick Taylor of was received with great interest and its systematic views on work and performance still influence HRM Process even today Decenzo, Frederick Taylor once argued that if monetary rewards are tied to the efforts put on jobs, then employees would respond with the maximum capability Utouh, The theory felt too mechanistic, not regarding humans as complex living and social siplomarbeit as Elton Mayo viewed Torrington, And such that tying a human to the struggle for money reduced his dignity.


Soon the person simply says, in effect, what have you done for me lately? In the mid of social dilemmas, especially in the cases of religious and moral ethics or in the quest for freedom against the tyranny of capitalism — in our work life, the Herzberg theory will always be academically alluring and pleasantly humanistic.

And this is why; first it appeals to the Protestant religious ethics Armstrong,p. Secondly, its simplistic nature that avoided academic abstractions made it easy to understand, and finally its affiliation to the highly respected ideas of Maslow and McGregor, paves a quick way for its academic acceptability Armstrong, Added to our craving for sanity, trying to be reasonable in all things especially with good judgment, and so, wanting to disqualify money as a driving force is very reasonable for every rational mind.

In a survey of about U. Although some theories still object the significance of money in motivation. Skinner Dessler, with money dipomarbeit a significant influence.

Those situations could be; – the nature and type of the business, the nature of the industry i. The existing research gap for lack of such constrained un-generalized study in Tanzania with applicable findings concerning specified business environment, propelled the researcher to conduct this research.

The major objective of this study was to assess with clarity the effectiveness of money as motivator for academic staff in higher diplomabreit institutions in Tanzania. Elaborating the relationship between money and employee motivation for academic staff in higher learning institutions. How effective are extrinsic motivators compared to intrinsic motivators for academic staff in higher learning institution? To what extent does the increase of money positively affect motivation for duplomarbeit staff, compared to other factors?

Increase to the body of knowledge concerning employee motivation in Human Resource Management. Provide feedback to the institution about the effectiveness of its motivational practices, and therefore miatrbeitermotivation the type of employee motivation packages it could best use to motivate its teaching workforce.

The Evaluations done in this research provides an empirical framework for further additional enquiries of the nearly same studies.

The Researcher will be able to apply the theoretical knowledge obtained from the study in solving practical management problems in Human Resource Management. This research study provides a referencing material to other continuing students in their study on the mitarbeitermotivatiion of motivation.

Its study scope is limited to the departments of academic staff at the organization on case study. Both management and academic staff from different academic departments were picked to give opinions by answering specified questions or even explain different phenomena from their own viewpoint. Due to the approach as well as time limit, our research study was concentrated more to the following study areas.

Time Limit, the researcher had only two months until the research work was submitted.

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So the researcher did face inconveniences retrieval of data. The process of motivation is affected by several factors; Herzberg classified those factors into two groups, the Motivators and Hygiene Factors Mullins, iconed as intrinsic and extrinsic factors in Luthans Hygiene extrinsic factors of motivation includes; working conditions, supervision, policies, administration and mitarbeitermtivation monetary rewardswhile Motivators intrinsic factors includes; opportunity for advancement, responsibility, achievement, challenging, appreciation and recognition Robbins,Dessler, and Luthans, In this study, the researcher focused in assessing the effectiveness of money as a motivator in work organizations as discussed by Armstrongp.

This chapter consists of theoretical and empirical literature concerning the subject of the research study. Torrington identified it as effort or drive that an individual puts into an activity.

And is it linked to the goal? First, people can motivate themselves by seeking, finding and carrying out work or being given work that mitarbeitermotvation their needs or at least leads them to expect that their goals will be achieved. Motivation mitarbeitermotivatikn a complex subject and is influenced by many variables. Individuals have variety of changing and often conflicting needs and expectation, which they attempt satisfying them in number of different ways.

As also identified by Mullinwe can categorize motivation into two major types; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation — this is the motivation within a person Decenzo,rather than externally applied motivator.

They include diplomarbdit, autonomy freedom to actscope to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting and challenging work and opportunities for advancement Armstrong, This is the motivation developed by an individual from within.

This includes tangible rewards that are externally administered to improve behavior Mullins,for example; fringe benefits, increased pay, working environment, conditions of work or promotion, and even punishments, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticism Armstrong, This is the motivation pushed by external drivers such as tangible rewards and punishment, therefore perceived as a management process.


Several theories have been put forward to explain the concept on attaining motivation at the workplace. These theories are divided to either instrumentality, content or process theories, Armstrong, These theories serve us with an understanding unto the subject of motivation, and at least being partially true they can help in explaining the behavior of certain people at certain times Mullins, A Psychologist named B.

The effectiveness of money as a motivation for academic | Diplomarbeitende

Skinner was pioneer of the concept of conditioning. Taylor, it emphasized on the need to rationalize work and on economic outcomes, assuming that a person will be motivated to work if rewards and penalties are tied directly miyarbeitermotivation his or her performance Armstrong, Taylor observed a tendency of workers working at the slowest pace possible, and therefore producing at a minimum acceptable level, especially when these workers had to run to their homes even after twelve hours of work Dessler, Taylor knew mitzrbeitermotivation if he could harness this energy at work, Midvale could achieve huge productivity gains.

So Taylor turned to financial rewards, which had a great impact in mitxrbeitermotivation the primitive mitarbeitermotivatoon arbitrary wage systems at the time.

In his theory the needs where categorized in five hierarchal order, starting with; physiological, security or safety, social mitarbeitermotifationself-esteem, and self-actualization. Physiological needs — this is the first and the basic level of needs, it constitutes of all human needs that are resulted due to the physical processes of the body, such as due to the nature the human body diplomqrbeit. Example; the need for oxygen, shelter, sleep, food, water, and sex. Safety needs — this is the second level and it consists of the need for protection against any perceived danger or the deprivation of any of the physiological needs.

Social needs — at this level, the intermediate level. A person becomes more concerning about belonging, affection and affiliation, it results the need for love, affection and acceptance as belonging to a particular group. Self-Esteem — the need to have a stable, firmly based, high evaluation of oneself self-esteem and to have the respect of others prestige.

It has been considered to be representing the elevation needs of humans. It constitutes issues like confidence, independence and freedom, reputation, recognition, attention, power, influence, status and appreciation. Self-actualization may take different form from one person to another, emphasizing on individual mitarbeitefmotivation on becoming the best that individual can be.

The effectiveness of money as a motivation for academic institutions. An assessment

Herzberg used the critical incidence method, and by tabulating on where these employees felt good or bad concerning their job experience and job context, he concluded that; the job satisfiers are related to job content, and job dissatisfies are related to the job context Luthans, These two factors are now known as Hygiene factors and Motivators.

Herzberg argued that, even though the lack of these leads to dissatisfaction, adding more of these is an inferior way to motivate someone Dessler, Motivators, unlike the hygiene factors, these represented the content of the job. They are termed as intrinsic factors.

According to Dessler intrinsic motivation is motivation that derives from the pleasure someone gets from doing the job or task. It comes from within the person, rather than from some externally applied motivator. Herzberg argued that using money is an inferior way to motivate a person Dessler, The first profound study that casted first doubts on the use of money as a motivator is the famous Hawthorne Studies conducted at the western electrical plant in Chicago, USA in Initially the Hawthorne study was set to examine the relationship between the physical environment and employee productivity, the study started by focusing on the illumination effect at the work place.

Just as during the Hawthorne research as it was then determined that a group operating well below its capability and leveling output was in fact to protect itself. Since then different research studies have debated on various factors that motivate employees at workplaces.

The same exhibits In the intensive survey study on reasons on work disengagement in United States, where about U.

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