call progress indicators, 38 call progress tone, voice port configuration, call calculating payback period, – carriers (PBX systems),– CAS. Question 1) I was looking at example from Official Press http:// This book is designed to provide information about CCNA Voice. Every effort . author to produce a lab book for the CCNA Voice certification. I owe her even.
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History of the CCNA Certification Given that you are about to take on the challenge of obtaining your Cisco CCNA certification, you probably should know a little about the history of how it came about and how it evolved. The CCIE certification was aimed at those hardcore networking geeks in the early days of corporate networking. However, this left a glaring hole for those who wanted to break into the new and exciting world of computer networking.
This was a single exam and the exam number was I have no idea why so many other articles state the first exam was Back in these days when I achieved my CCNA, the classroom I sat in each student had one router and we had to partner up with another student to see routes propagate between our routers. We also voicf one switch to share between the whole class of 12 students!
So you can see how much they have dropped in price over the years. First we will look at the items that were on the initial exam and that still reside on the current exam so you can see the core has not changed that much. OSI Model — The foundation of how data travels up and down the data stack and allows for inter-operability. If you do not understand this, you will not pass the exam.
Static Routing — Still a base concept you must understand to be a successful network engineer. Frame Relay — Still on the exam for large networks that span multiple geographic locations.
Access-Lists — General access-list configuration was covered. Binary-Hex-Decimal Conversions — Although you still need to know binary to decimal conversions to be proficient in subnetting, the hexidecimal conversions were dropped.
Most of you probably have no idea what I am even talking about. Good times though back then. So this was one of the core topics you would cover on the exam. Do voiice remember what a MAU was? ISDN — Remember the days of thinking how fast two voixe modems basically bundled together were?
CCNA Voice Certification | ICOMM 8
ATM — An older ccnx 53 byte cell technology using virtual circuits. Cisco Switch The reason we are covering what was on the initial exam to the current day exam is so you can see that the core of the CCNA exam has been relatively unchanged in 15 years!
Some of the fringe technologies change here and there, but nothing earth shattering.
So if you take your time and really absorb and learn the CCNA objectives, it will be something you will be able to use for a long, 460-4461 time in your computer networking career. So fast forward two years to and exam Really there was very little change to the exam except I am pretty sure this is where they removed AppleTalk and Token Ring from the exam and made the announcement of IOS There were very few changes in syntax and commands from a CCNA level perspective between It was seems that Cisco beefed up the Switching portion of the exam a little bit in this revision.
Cisco actually called this the CCNA 2.
It is significant to note that there were initially no changes to the exam objectives. But what changed was Cisco was trying to eliminate the brain dump sites that were starting to pop up. So Cisco included simulation questions in which you had to actually configure interfaces at the CLI as these types of questions are a lot harder to memorize.
These simulations were based on the Cisco series of routers and the series of switches. Due to the simulation questions, Cisco increased the time allocated for the exam from 75 minutes to 90 minutes.
They also decreased the number of questions on the exam from 60 to 70 to 55 to 65 questions per exam. Something else I find significant is that Cisco started to tweak the objectives of the exam during the course of this exam number and accordingly changed the questions that were in the exam pool.
This helped to keep the question pool fresh. Then in late we had some significant changes and the exam was introduced. You may note how they incremented from the previous, numbering system and jumped up to signifying a revamped exam.
History of the CCNA Certification –
We will touch on this more in a bit. 460–461 routing including VLSMs — now we are making subnetting really hard and interesting. Got to conserve those IPs! Cisco Switch Wireless — This is just being touched on the very basics in this revision of the vkice. Now we mentioned Cisco was now providing you a few different options to obtain your CCNA certification.
The first way was the tradition single exam which is now called the composite exam.
In the two exam format, there are 60 minutes in length each instead of 90 minutes for the single, composite exam. At this time of the Cisco certification evolution, passing either of the exams did not earn the candidate any type of certification. We will see that evolve later. Four years later in October we see the update of the exam to the revision. The composite exam consisted of questions and 90 minutes to complete them all.
The two exam option was 50 to 60 questions in 90 minutes for the new ICND1 exam and 45 to 55 questions in 75 minutes for the new ICND2 option. You would receive this certification when you passed your ICND1 exam. Honestly at this time, most people in the computer networking space simply overlooked this certification as being irrelevant at the time.
But that will soon change and we will discuss that shortly. Simply Cisco removed ISDN from the exam format and updated the router platform to the routers and series switches. Cisco Router and Cisco Switch Why did they update the router and switch platform? Well, that is what they were selling at the time. Now what did they add to the CCNA exam? Security Device Manager SDM — Which was a grapical interface to configure your router so you did not have to learn the command line.
Well, at least in theory. It never really took off and it was removed about 2 years later while still the exam. Security — Cisco starts to introduce the concept of Security as hacking is becoming more of a corporate concern. Troubleshooting — To marry up with the CCNP revisions that will be introduced about a year later, Cisco starts to introduce the concept of knowing how to troubleshoot a device and not just set it up.
Switch Security — Again, as security is concern, Cisco starts to hammer this home on the exam.
Ccna voice 460-461 pdf
About a year later inCisco saw the need to really break out different disciplines for their CCNA track. As these certifications were introduced, it seems we seen that there was less focus on seeing these concepts on the CCNA exam as they seemed to be phased out during the exam run. Finally to and the new CCNA exam. As before, we will first note what was removed from the exam which was formally SDM, Wireless, and Security as mentioned above.
So what was added? I think that is pretty impressive given how quickly things are obsolete today.