Buy ARINC Ats Data Link Applications Over Acars Air-Ground Network from SAI Global. ARINC documents may be obtained from ARINC at: ,. ARINC “ATS Data Link Applications Over ACARS Air-Ground Network”. ARINC. Aeronautical Radio, Incorporated (ARINC), established in , is a major provider of transport communications and systems engineering solutions for eight .

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Economic pressures may drive early implementation of regional capabilities that must be consistant for use by all users. The current implementation of ATIS in four areas resulted in four different protocols. The overriding consideration in determining a transition path is to start with as little change as possible.

Rely on actual performance rather than predictions to assess system capability. Recognise the importance of new learnings gained by taking a methodic development cycle, rather than leaping forward only to realize that other directions were more cost effective. The motivating factor is to get airplanes from point A to point B in an arijc manner while also providing the airplane operators choice in type of airplane, equipment equippage, operational profile, and schedule.

How can you most easily implement bit oriented applications? Beyond the physical memory capability 6622 in a management unit to support enhanced arunc protocols, there is further consideration of the development of essential level airplane functions along with adequate flight managment functions and crew interface and alerting capability.

The operators will invest in new equipment when it makes sense. Only a very few visionary operators will spend the money based only on promises. There must be a tangible benefit.

Early investment in the airborne applications, not the communications service will surely reap more benefit in the early stages. There will be some unforeseen changes, not everything will be perfect from the start, but there is no inherhent limitation either, other than transport performance.

It is important to recognize that the inherent transport performance is not greatly influenced by communications protocols. It is greatly influenced by the available RF spectrum and power available. In fact, it is arguable that the unique ACARS protocols developed today are in fact quite efficient in comparison to true OSI protocols, given the low available bandwidth in air ground communications.

Given the existing use of HF in remote areas, a reliable means of two way communication for routine communications can actually result in a reduction in seperation. The addition of a surveillance capability along with a backup voice communications capability will provide additional reductions in seperation. The use of satellite communications will support all of these application requirements.

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ARINC implementation does support the most cost effective transition to early application of bit oriented applications. Airplanes flying in cruise over barren land masses with no terrestrial communications and with no radar services surely will benefit from the use of satellite data communications.

ARINC is the most cost effective approach to early use of satellite data communications. If terrestrial communications are available, such as VHF service, than the use of voice can be 62, although this does not stimulate the use of automation, only data communications will enable true automation.

In any case, the choice of medium and protocol must be made in light of performance requirements determined by the applications. Aircraft seperation is a major factor in determining performance requirements. Terminal applications would have the most demanding requirements, and enroute the least demanding.

Last updated 1/17/07

The choice of protocol would have much less aeinc in comparison to RF air ground performance. Changes to working software must be considered very carefully, given the historically finicky nature it’s development takes.


Early investment in applications will reap the earliest benefits. It is the burden of each software development to account for eventual change.

The simplest development is made with a mature system. The use of an existing communications network will enable the earliest development of arin applications. However, these applications should be developed in a structured manner to allow for eventual changes in protocol.

However, these differences 62 be accounted for in developing applications. For essential level communications, to prevent hazerdously misleading data from being presented, the use of at least a 16 bit end to end CRC will be required. A message received with bad BCS will be ignored. A srinc not acknowledged is arinv. For air to ground messages, the lack of acknowledgement will result in the message being retained for delivery whenever possible. For ground to air messages, a message will be returned to the originator detailing the message delivery status.

Each element of the communications path has some inherent reliability. Ultimately, however, there will be procedures to account for the failure to communicate via data link, triggered by timers to alert the originator that the message was not delivered. Satellite voice is expected to aribc this backup.

This is accomplished by converting each four bits into a hex characterA-F. The AFN requires the initial contact request from the airplane contain a four letter ICAO code, which the communications service provider will convert to a seven digit network address.

From that point forward, the airplane and ATC applications will transfer communications as required with no further intervention from the service provider. This is very likely to be a similar process with any protocol. The sequencing of multi-block messages can influence their timely delivery to the end user. Ultimate loss of a message due to mis-sequencing is accounted for procedurally.

Other protocols may improve the performance of delivery of messages, but the ultimate benefit of this must be 262 with the incremental cost to provide the other arincc.

The use of satellite data communications ensures efficient use of RF spectrum. This will not change with respect to end system protocol. This can be compensated by arijc adequate frequencies and robust frequency management.

The choice of protocol has minimal impact on the method of flow control. ARINC does not provide any inherent flow control. If there is sufficient benefit, arinv end applications may be modified to provide for a more robust service while using these protocols.

No matter which protocol is chosen, there will be procudures to deal with a breakdown in air ground communications. No matter which protocol is chosed, procedures will be developed to make the best use of provided capability.

Frustration in early stages could indeed introduce some reluctance to use of these applications. However, for any development to take place, you must change something. There must be some benefit to offset the cost of change. By taking small steps, such as concentrating on development of arinf first, 6222 providing incremental benefit in light of any communications performance limitations, the most logical and satisfactory development can arrinc place.

Procedures will be developed as required. 262 most signicant benefit will be lower operating costs and increased operating flexibility provided to the airplane operator. In addition, there will be likely increases in safety by the use of more reliable air ground communications medium, such as satellite communications. Pilot and controller workload are a consideration, but a reduction in their workload is not the primary benefit.

Unfortunately, only the AFN is developed today; much work remains to aronc context management or the directory services. There will be differences between how each of them operate. A communications network that meets the performance airnc should be considered acceptable aeinc if it aeinc not provide true use of priority. There will be cases when messages are arjnc out of sequence from their inherent priority.


However, in any case, the system must be robust enough to provide acceptable performance. The use of single block messages should be encouraged to give the network maximum flexibility.

However, system performance is the ultimate goal, with or without priority. It is possible that to achieve an incremental improvement in seperation arihc some point will require system performance that can be gauranteed only with priority.

At that point, there will be some comparison of the cost of upgrading versus the benefit of further reductions in seperation standards. At that point, it is possible that the user will utilize alternate procedures, such as direct voice contact.

However, routine messaging without exceptional problems will not require any extra-oridanry procedures. These ATS applications should be developed with enough flexibility to allow for transition to an ATN environment when it is developed and becomes available. The benefits received will be based on the performance demonstrated by the system.

However, the RF limitations in aronc air ground communications mediums represents the most significant limitation in throughput. However, this same RF capability will be utilized in the ATN, and will also be a limitation to that network. It is arguable, in comparison of this to the existing HF voice radio environment, that controller and pilot workload for routine communications will be reduced considerably.

To what degree these two paths are common has not been determined. The process is open to anyone to participate in, although ultimately only the airlines themselves make decisions.

The airlines make their decisions in light of direct impact of changes as well as in consideration of other factors, such as compatibility with ground systems. The ACARS management unit is preprogrammed to favor one medium over another, primarily because of recurring cost considerations. Strictly speaking, performance and reliability will not be impacted for ATS messaging, as it will be sent over any available means.

VHF and satellite communications should be considered reliable. Will this change when we move towards the ATN? It is expected that the use of an end to end 16 bit CRC coupled with a limited valid character set is adequate.

The issue of data integrity falls either in availability of data or corruption of data.

In this context, for enroute data link, the criteria to 62 is improbable to present hazerdously misleading data. This is an end to end requirement.

ARINC provides for means to achieve this criteria. The ADSP criteria of for some applications must be considered with respect to the applications that are being proposed for early implementation with the ACARS network.

But in this case, there will be procedures requiring positive acknowledgement of intentions by the end user. A request to climb would be followed with a clearance to climb. If the originator of a message is informed the message was delivered, but no response has been received, the originator will have procedures related to this for example, establish voice communications.

Is it being suggested that there is no other transition path given current avionics? As long as performance is adequate for applications being considered, it is adeqaute.

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